and a man's sternum/ribs, at more than a very few feet of distance from the muzzle of a 12 ga. In Handguns magazine, a few years ago, Sanow showed a pic of a gelatin block, shot with #7.5 shot, with the muzzle of the gun in CONTACT with the jello block. Deepest penetration of any pellet was a mere 7", and most of the pellets stopped at 5" or less. Put a heavy coat on a man, at say, 15 ft, and you may not get any penetration to the vitals at all. The shot, if it doesn't penetrate the skin, hits him no harder than the gun butt hits your shoulder. Soft body armor has stopped shotgun blasts on cops, and left them on their feet to fire back, you know.