This is from the FDA's website regarding the use of N95 masks-The N95 masks will only prevent you from infecting others. It will do nothing to stop a virus. Just some food for thought.
However, some N95 respirators are intended for use in a healthcare setting. Specifically, single-use, disposable respiratory protective devices used and worn by healthcare personnel during procedures to protect both the patient and healthcare personnel from the transfer of microorganisms, body fluids, and particulate material. These N95 respirators are class II devices regulated by the FDA, under 21 CFR 878.4040, and CDC NIOSH. Subject to certain conditions and limitations, N95s regulated under product code MSH are exempt from 510(k) premarket notification. The FDA has a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the CDC NIOSH which outlines the framework for coordination and collaboration between the FDA and NIOSH for regulation of this subset of N95 respirators.
Seems they are saying the protect both the patient and the healthcare provider, which means a person that is not sick and wears one will have protection from a person that is sick. They want the general public to stop buying them because they do not have enough for healthcare providers right now. The biggest issue with using these is the manner in which you don and doff them. If you don't do it properly you can be exposed to the virus. Loose fitting ones are also an issue, think children, they need masks that are made for their smaller face structure. They are made for single use, not multiple uses. Folks that have breathing issues will also have difficulty with them because they do somewhat restrict breathing.
Regarding the OP's question, you would have to be really really thorough in the cleaning of the reusable respirator. I am not sure how you would clean the filter insert without damaging it. If it were me, I would trash the removable filter after use, even though it states it is rated for 40 hours.